Archaeologists Unearth Earliest Evidence of Multi-Cropping

Archaeologists have unearthed the earliest micro-botanical evidence of the summer grain broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) in Mesopotamia, identified using phytoliths (microscopic plant remains) in dung-rich sediments from Khani Masi, a mid-second millennium BCE site located in northern Iraq.

Panicum miliaceum (left) and Echinochloa crus-galli. Image credit: Otto Wilhelm /

Panicum miliaceum (left) and Echinochloa crus-galli. Image credit: Otto Wilhelm /

Multi-cropping — the seasonally sequential production of multiple crops on the same land in the same year — is an agricultural technique aimed at diversifying and intensifying economic and subsistence-based food, fodder, and forage production.

Similar to the contemporary world, this form of agricultural production was vital for provisioning large urban centers and financing imperial ambitions across ancient Eurasia.

In Southwest Asia, multi-cropping, in which grain, fodder, or forage could be reliably cultivated during dry summer months, only became possible with the translocation of summer grains, like millet, from Africa and East Asia.

Despite some textual sources suggesting millet cultivation as early as the third millennium BCE, the absence of robust archaeobotanical evidence for millet in semi-arid Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq) has led most archaeologists to conclude that millet was only grown in the region after the mid-first millennium BCE introduction of massive, state-sponsored irrigation systems.

“Overall, the presence of millet in ancient Iraq during the earlier time period challenges the accepted narrative of agricultural development in the region as well as our models for how ancient societies provisioned themselves,” said Dr. Elise Laugier, an environmental archaeologist at Rutgers University-New Brunswick.

“The broomcorn millet is an amazingly robust, quick-growing and versatile summer crop that was first domesticated in East Asia.”

In their new research, Dr. Laugier and colleagues analyzed phytoliths from Khani Masi, a mid-late second millennium BCE (c. 1500-1100 BCE) site in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.

“The presence of this East Asian crop in ancient Iraq highlights the interconnected nature of Eurasia during this time, contributing to our knowledge of early food globalization,” Dr. Laugier said.

“Our discovery of millet and thus the evidence of summer cultivation practices also forces us to reconsider the capacity and resilience of the agricultural systems that sustained and provisioned Mesopotamia’s early cities, states and empires.”

The discovery of the broomcorn millet in ancient Mesopotamia was surprising for environmental and historical reasons.

“Until now, we thought that millet wasn’t grown in Iraq until the construction of later first millennium BCE imperial irrigation systems,” the researchers said.

“Millet generally requires summer precipitation to grow, but Southwest Asia has a wet-winter and dry-summer climate, and agricultural production is based almost entirely on crops grown during the winter, such as wheat and barley.”

The new evidence that crops and food were, in fact, grown in summer months means that previous studies likely vastly under-appreciated the capacities and resilience of ancient agricultural food-system societies in semi-arid ecosystems.

The new study is also part of growing archaeological research showing that in the past, agricultural innovation was a local initiative, adopted as part of local diversification strategies long before they were used in imperial agricultural intensification regimes — new information that could have an impact on how agricultural innovations move forward today.

“Although millet isn’t a common or preferred food in semi-arid Southwest Asia or the United States today, it is still common in other parts of Asia and Africa,” Dr. Laugier said.

“Millet is a hearty, fast-growing, low-water requiring and nutritious gluten-free grain that could hold a lot of potential for increasing the resilience capacities of our semi-arid food systems.”

“Today’s agricultural innovators should consider investing in more diverse and resilient food systems, just as people did in ancient Mesopotamia.”

A paper on the findings was published in the journal Scientific Reports.


E.J. Laugier et al. 2022. Phytolith evidence for the pastoral origins of multi-cropping in Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq). Sci Rep 12, 60; doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-03552-w


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